Está livremente disponível online a seguinte tese de mestrado:
Mikko Linnala, Characterisation of pigment particles by scanning electron microscope and image analysis programs, Lappeenranta, Lappeenranta University of Technology, 2008.
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Coating and filler pigments have strong influence to the properties of the paper. Filler content can be even over 30 % and pigment content in coating is about 8595 weight percent. The physical and chemical properties of the pigments are different and the knowledge of these properties is important for optimising of optical and printing properties of the paper. The size and shape of pigment particles can be measured by different analysers which can be based on sedimentation, laser diffraction, changes in electric field etc. In this master's thesis was researched particle properties especially by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and image analysis programs. Research included nine pigments with different particle size and shape. Pigments were analysed by two image analysis programs (INCA Feature and Poikki), Coulter LS230 (laser diffraction) and SediGraph 5100 (sedimentation). The results were compared to perceive the effect of particle shape to the performance of the analysers. Only image analysis programs gave parameters of the particle shape. One part of research was also the sample preparation for SEM. Individual particles should be separated and distinct in ideal sample. Analysing methods gave different results but results from image analysis programs corresponded even to sedimentation or to laser diffraction depending on the particle shape. Detailed analysis of the particle shape required high magnification in SEM, but measured parameters described very well the shape of the particles. Large particles (ecd ~1 µm) could be used also in 3D modelling which enabled the measurement of the thickness of the particles. Scanning electron microscope and image analysis programs were effective and multifunctional tools for particle analyses. Development and experience will devise the usability of analysing method in routine use.